Development of Russian's industrial and technological resources required to produce PET center equipment


Shimchuk,-G.G. (Russian Federation Center 'Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics', Moscow (Russian Federation)); Kiselev,-V.A. (Atomic Energy Agency of Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Sidorov,-A.V. (Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Peterburg (Russian Federation)); Shtukovsky,-O.A. (Central Research Roentgen-Radiological Institute, St. Peterburg (Russian Federation)); Derevjanko,-E.P. (Bakulev Cardiovascular Surgery Scientific Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)
Positron emission tomography (PET) is one of the most sensitive and promising methods of nuclear medicine. During the last 10-15 years positron-emission tomography (PET) has developed into a routine clinical diagnostics approach used in oncology, cardiology, neurology, psychiatry and pharmacokinetics applications. Present broad application of PET is associated with the use of not only very short-lived ''bio-isotopes'', but also of other, longer-lived positron emitters and generator systems. At present, PET technique is becoming increasingly important in clinical functional diagnostics. Considering the growing demand from domestic medical institutions in PET diagnostic equipment, the task of providing the national clinics with such instruments becomes not only topical, but vital. Although to present days major medical institutions in Moscow and in St. Petersburg have started procuring imported instruments for their PET, Russia's industrial and technological resources required to produce PET center equipment are already enough developed. Research and development efforts that have been underway at Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (NIIEFA) with participation of Central Scientific Research Roentgen-Radiological Institute (CNIRRI) and Bakulev Cardiovascular Surgery Scientific Center (BCSSC) engendered a theoretical, technical and technological foundation for design and production of the equipment required to implement PET technique in the Russian clinical environment. A several cyclotrons with target systems for PET-radionuclide production has been constructed and manufactured. The line of this cyclotrons including negative ion cyclotron CC-18/9 with vertical magnet and simultaneous dual beam extraction for accelerating 18 MeV protons 100 mu A extracted beam current and 9 MeV deuterons 50 mu A extracted beam current and negative ion cyclotron CC-12 with vertical magnet and simultaneous dual beam extraction for accelerating 12 MeV protons 100 mu A extracted beam current. Set of units for radiochemical laboratories of PET-centers has been manufactured and put in operation for automated radiochemical production of compounds and radiopharmaceuticals labeled by PET radionuclides. The set include modules for the synthesis of sup 1 sup 1 C-fatty acids, of sup 1 sup 1 C-methylation tracers, of sup 1 sup 8 F-FDG and sup 1 sup 3 N-ammonium. Two types of shielding boxes for putting up radiochemical modules have been constructed and manufactured too. A full automated Rb-82 generator infusion system has been constructed. Rb-82 generator system provides bolus and continuous injections under computer control with display output of all required current information. At the 90 years last century experimental specimen of a full-body PET-scanner has been designed and manufactured in ITEP. This scanner comprises two half-rings with 9x18x30 mm bismuth germanate detectors housed in a circle of 1080 mm radius. From December 2005 design of high resolution PETscanner for animal experimental investigations was started in collaboration ITEP and NIIEFA. This scanner will comprise three rings with the arrays of LYSO detectors. The arrays has 11 x 11 elements with pixels 1.6 xl.6 x 10 mm. PET-scanner will be manufactured and put in run in 2007. What is being produced in Russia for PET-centers at present is shown. Complex of technical and clinical trials of presented above units have been done. Two cyclotrons CC18 put in operation in Turku (Finland) and CNIRRI (S.-Peterburg, Russia). Cyclotron CC-12 is under construction now. Set of radiochemical modules now put in ran at CNIRRI and BCSSC and use for clinical investigations more then one thousand of patients. Nine shielding boxes are using in PETcenter CNIRRI now. The Rb-82 generator system have passed integration engineering tests. The system operates reliably within the designed specifications. Now Rb-82 generator system under validation procedure in Miami, USA. Technical parameters and clinical result of using of Russian's PET technique are corresponding world level analogous equipment.