Application of X-ray and Neutron Scattering Techniques inApplication of X-ray and Neutron Scattering Techniques in Materials Research:....


Lithium Batteri and ElectronicApplication of X-ray and Neutron Scattering Techniques in Ceramics. X-ray and neutron powder diffraction provide complementary informationon the structures of inorganic
complex oxides, primarily because of the different dependence of atomic scattering power, or scattering length, on
atomic number. Neutron diffraction is particularly useful for characterising novel lithium transition metal oxides which
have applications in prototype advanced lithium battery systems. Thus, it is possible to establish conduction pathways
for mobile Li+ ions and to distinguish between transition metal ions in ordered spinel structures such as Li2NiMn30s,
which has a charge-discharge potential of 4.7V. An additional feature of such materials is oxygen non-stoichiometry in
which their oxygen content depends on sample preparation conditions and temperature. This oxygen non-stoichiometry
may be analysed by thermogravimetry and the transition metal oxidation states determined, in the solid state, by the Xray
absorption technique, XANES. Structural changes as a function of temperature may be followed by high temperature
diffraction methods and as a function of lithium content during charging/discharging of lithium batteries by in situ
synchrotron XRD. A range of examples of the applications of these techniques will be presented.
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3. Structural characterisation of REBaCoP6-<1>